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RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EDUCATION   413

whether Latin is worth teaching to these children. For that it is
necessary to go beyond science into considerations of a philoso-
phical character regarding the aim (or aims) of education and of
life. The need for a philosophy as well as for a science of education
is still more evident when the character of the school system as
a whole is in question. The subjects to be taught and the methods
employed in teaching them ultimately depend as much on judg-
ments of worth as on experience and experiment. Educators like
Dr. Montessori—to refer to one of the latest advocates of a purely
scientific pedagogy—may profess to dispense with preconceptions
altogether. But the preconceptions are there all the same ; and
a system like that of Dr. Montessori, based on a crude faculty
psychology and an individualistic view of freedom in develop-
ment, will stand or fall, not by devices worked out experiment-
ally, but by the implicit ends these devices are intended to realize.
The reaction against philosophy, which is one of the features of
contemporary thought about education, will have its day and pass,
and it will be seen that science is not the supplanter but the ally
of philosophy in the development of education. When that time
comes the world will have a science of education such as it has
never had before, and it will also have its philosophies of education,
like the older philosophies in their essentials, but more profound
because enriched by the results of free inquiry and research.
' The adjustment of the two ways of thought is a problem for the
future.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BINET, A.; Les Idtes Modernes sur lesEnfants, Paris, 1911 ; Articles vaU Annie
Psychologique, 1895-1911.

Board of Education, Psychological Tests of Educabte Capacity, 1942 ;
C. Burt, Mental and Scholastic Tests* 1921, and The Young Delinquent*

1925 ; Industrial Fatigue Research Board, A Study in Vocational Guidance,

1926 ;   Frank N. Freeman, Mental Tests, 1927 ;   L, M. Terman, The
Measurement of Intelligence, 1919, The Intelligence of School Children, 1921.
Intelligence Tests and School Reorganization, 1922.

DBWEY, J.: School and Society, Chicago, 1900 ; The School and the Child,
London, 1907 ; Educational Essays, London, 1910 ; Schools of To-morrow,
London, 1915 ; Democracy and Education, New York, 1916.

EXPERIMENTAL PEDAGOGY : B. Claparede, Experimental Pedagogy, English
translation, London, 1911 ; E. B. Huey, The Psychology and Pedagogy of
Reading, New York, 1908 ; W. A. Lay, Eixperimentefo Didaktik, Leipzig,
1905; E. Meumann, Experimentelle Padagogik, Leipzig, 1907-1911 ; The
Psychology of Learningf New York, 1913 J R- R- Rusk, Experimental